9 Improvement strategies. About critical thinking

It is impossible to become an excellent thinker just because you want it. Changes in intellectual habits – long-term project. First you need to realize that there are serious problems in our thinking. And understand what you need training.

Second step: choice of strategy

According to the work of the floor and Elder (Paul R., Elder L. Critical Thinking in Everyday Life: 9 Strategies), there are 9 strategies that any motivated person can use to become better as a thinker. We will analyze every detail.

Think is not entertainment, but duty.

The first strategy: use the "empty" time.

All people spend wasted for a while – in transport, in line, anywhere. So why not use it in your own interests? You could, for example, ask yourself such questions:

  • When I thought the worst today?
  • When I made the maximum thinking effort?
  • What actually I thought today?
  • Did anything comprehended?
  • I allowed negative thinking unnecessary to upset me?
  • If I had to repeat today that I would do differently?
  • Why?
  • Did I do anything today, which contributes to my long-term goals?
  • Did I act in accordance with my own values?

Second strategy: on the issue per day.

At the beginning of each day, you need to choose a task for studying in free minute. Disassemble the logic of the problem sequentially:

  • 1. Word the question is so clear and exactly as soon as you can.
  • 2. Explore the problem to make it the clear "grade", the degree of your control over it, the potential for its solution.
  • 9 Improvement strategies. About critical thinking
  • 3. Observe what additional information you need to solve, and actively look for it.
  • 4. Analyze and interpret information by building the most logical and reasonable conclusions.
  • 5. Find out your abilities in the nearest and long term.
  • 6. Rate your solutions.
  • 7. Choose a strategic approach to the problem and follow this strategy.
  • eight. Control the consequences of their actions as they begin to manifest. Be prepared at any time to revise your strategy.

Third Strategy: Massion (Interior) Intelligent Standards.

Each week to show increased attention to one of the intellectual standards (clarity, accuracy, accuracy (truth), relevance, depth, latitude, logicality, significance). Let’s say if you study clarity, try noting when your thoughts are not clear. Pay attention to those moments when the statements of other people are not clear. Analyze these situations.

Fourth Strategy: Enter a special diary.

Each week, write down a certain number of notes in the diary using the format of the recording of four parts:

  • 1. Situation.
  • 2. Your reaction.
  • 3. Analysis.
  • 4. Evaluation and revaluation.

Fifth strategy: rebuild your character.

Choose for each month one ability of the mind – intellectual perseverance, autonomy, empathy, courage, humility, and t. D., to make efforts to implement it, focusing on how you can work out this quality in yourself. For example, concentrating on intellectual humility, start assessing when you recognize that it is wrong, and when – refuse to accept it.

Sixth Strategy: Admit Your Egocentrism and handcap with it.

Egocentric thinking is rooted in the human nature property interpret everything in its favor. Regularly think about such questions: "Under what circumstances I think in my favor?"," I did or spoke something "irrational" to insist on my?". As soon as you recognize egocentric thinking in action, you can work on replacing it more rational thought. This happens through systematic self-reflection.

Seventh Strategy: Review and change your usual vision of things.

We live in the world at the same time and personal, and social. Any situation is "defined", and our actions in it are "predetermined". However, each thing can be defined in more than one way. This fact carries huge opportunities. We can:

  • 1. Create a list of five to ten repetitive negative contexts in which we feel frustration, anger, misfortune or anxiety.
  • 2. Analyze the interpretation that underlies negative emotions.
  • 3. Develop alternative interpretation and plan new reactions and emotions.

6 stages of critical thinking

  • 1. Nonflexive thinker. At the first stage, we are not aware of significant problems in our thinking.
  • 2. Puzzled (concerned) thinker. In the second stage, the problem is aware of.
  • 3. Novice thinker. We are trying to improve the processes of thinking, but there is no regular practice yet.
  • 4. Practitioner thinker. There is a moment when we recognize the need for regular training.
  • 5. Well prepared thinker. At the fifth stage there are obvious improvements in thinking processes in accordance with the practice.
  • 6. Master. At the final stage, qualified and insightful thinking becomes our second nature.

Eighth Strategy: Install communication with your emotions.

Whenever you feel some kind of negative emotion, ask yourself: "What thinking leads to this emotion?"For example, if you are angry, ask yourself:" What kind of thought makes me evil? What other ways I could think about this situation?"And if there are such ways – focus on them, switch.

Ninth Strategy: Analyze Group influences on your life.

Notch and think about your social affiliation and what the society dictates you. What you "must believe" in a particular group? What you have forbidden to do? Each group imposes a certain level of conformity (subordination). Most people customize a huge part of their lives under the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčthemselves in the eyes of others. Find out what pressure has real impact on you, and evaluate whether it is worth rejecting this influence.

Third Step: Regular Practice

We offer you to become a member of a personal experiment. Test ideas arising in your daily life. Integrate important and take them as a basis with your experience. Use them every day. It is regular practice that ultimately leads to effective results, making you a "practicing thinker". And gradually critical thinking will turn into a natural process.

Psychology of critical thinking

Dian Chalpern

"Critical thinking is the use of cognitive techniques or strategies that increase the likelihood of obtaining the desired end result. This definition characterizes thinking as something different controllability and focus, – this type of thinking to which is resorted by solving problems, formulating conclusions, probabilistic assessment and decision making ".

9 Improvement strategies. About critical thinking

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